Sexual Assault Resistance Education Centre

Frequently Asked Questions

Q: Who can become an EAAA Campus or Community Trainer?
  • Women of any age who work for a post-secondary institution or grassroots women's/feminist organization can attend the EAAA Train the Trainer Workshop. The EAAA/Flip the Script program was designed for university/college women, so we expect that workshop attendees will largely be staff from post-secondary institutions or community sexual assault centres and non-profit empowerment self-defence organizations who have an established relationship with universities or colleges.

    Those requesting training will be asked to complete an Implementation Readiness Questionnaire (IRQ) for their organization. Priority in registration will be given to those whose organizations have the resources in place to implement EAAA within 6 to 9 months.

    Organizations who wish to deliver EAAA to high school girls should contact the SARE Centre for more information about the adaptation of EAAA that is currently in progress before attempting to register.

    Please note that the SARE Centre does not have a model worked out to allow for independent Trainers who are not or will not be employed by post-secondary institutions or grassroots (non-profit) organizations.

Q: How do I get trained to become an EAAA Campus/Community Trainer?
  • You must attend an EAAA Train the Trainer workshop. The SARE Centre offers these at least once annually usually in May or June to position Trainers to start delivery in the next semester. Registration for each workshop is limited to 16 women. See our Training Page to find out when our next training is scheduled or contact us at info@sarecentre.org .

    We can deliver an EAAA Train the Trainer workshop in your region or city. This is usually only pedagogically and financially feasible if you have a group of at least 8 women from across your region's institutions who require the training. contact us at info@sarecentre.org to obtain an estimate for us to come to your city.

Q: Once I've been trained as an EAAA Campus/Community Trainer, what will I be qualified to do?
  • EAAA Campus Trainers are qualified to hire, train, and supervise EAAA Facilitators (under 30 years old) to deliver the EAAA/Flip the Script program on their campuses or in their communities in all aspects of the EAAA program content except the self-defense techniques covered in the ACT unit. Please note Campus Trainers are NOT qualified to train other Trainers.

    If the Campus Trainer is 30 years old or younger (or close to that age) so that they would be perceived to be a peer to EAAA program participants, they could be an EAAA Facilitator as well if, and only if, they also complete the additional (7th) individualized self-defense training day offered by the SARE Centre.

Q: Once I've been trained as a Campus/Community Trainer will I be able to train other Campus Trainers
  • No. Campus/Community Trainers are qualified to train EAAA Facilitators to deliver the EAAA/Flip the Script program. Only our SARE Centre Lead Trainers can train Campus/Community Trainers.

Q: Who can become an EAAA/Flip the Script Facilitator
  • For the EAAA program to be effective, it must be delivered by two highly trained facilitators who identify as women. Because these Facilitators must be seen as expert peers by the program participants, EAAA Facilitators must be women who are reasonably close in age to potential participants (preferably under the age of 30). Organizations/institutions are responsible for hiring and training their own facilitators.

    SARE Centre does not train independent EAAA Facilitators. If you are interested in becoming an EAAA Facilitator you would need to be hired by a post-secondary institution or grassroots organization that is delivering EAAA in your region.

Q: How can I get training as an EAAA/Flip the Script Facilitator? Do you offer training in becoming an EAAA Facilitator
  • To become an EAAA Facilitator, you must be trained and supervised by a qualified Campus/Community Trainer in your local community who has completed the EAAA Train the Trainer workshop. Your Facilitator training would be 9 full days in length and include a 2-day course in women's (empowerment/feminist) self-defence (e.g., WenDo) and another day of training (individualized) on how to teach the strategies taught in the ACT unit of EAAA.

    SARE Centre does not train independent EAAA Facilitators. If you are interested in becoming an EAAA Facilitator you would need to be hired by a post-secondary institution or grassroots organization that is delivering EAAA in your region. If your own searches for information about EAAA in your region are not productive, please contact the SARE Centre. We can let you know if there is a university, college, or community organization near you who has a qualified EAAA Campus/Community Trainer on staff.

Q: Can you tell me how much it will cost to implement the EAAA program at our university?
  • EAAA/Flip the Script works because it is intensive. The SARE Centre provides training and advice to organizations who want to deliver the program. Costs of implementing the EAAA program at your University will vary depending on staff salaries, resource costs and various implementation decisions. Blueprints For Youth Development has consulted with us to provide an example of first year implementation costs. Please contact us at info@sarecentre.org if you have questions after you have reviewed these estimates.

Q: We are not sure if the EAAA program is right for our University/college. Can you send two EAAA Facilitators to our campus/community to deliver the EAAA program on a trial basis?
  • Yes, though our ability to offer this option is dependent on the timing requested and the availability of our small pool of EAAA Facilitators. If you are interested in having the EAAA/Flip the Script program delivered on your campus on a one-time basis, please contact us for estimates and availability. The single weekend, 2 sessions per day, version of EAAA is delivered to reduce costs. Please note that since a single EAAA program can only accommodate 20 women, this option is not cost effective in the longer term.

Q: Our university/college already offers sexual assault prevention programming (e.g., discussions of consent, Bringing in the Bystander™, Green Dot). Why would we need the EAAA program
  • Most sexual assault prevention programs offered on university and college campuses are not evidence-based and have never been evaluated in rigorous studies. Consent education is a key element of high quality sex education and so is a good idea to have on our campuses, but it is not effective sexual violence prevention. The bystander programs listed in the question above are among those high quality bystander programs that are proven to be effective in changing bystander attitudes, intentions, and behaviours; however, they do not reduce sexual assault perpetration or victimization for the university students who take them. We all hope that changes in the rates of sexual assault will happen when bystander programs are widely available and sustained for many years, but these changes take time and even once they do take effect, sexual violence perpetration is unlikely to be completely eliminated. Moreover, most (more than 80%) situations of acquaintance sexual assault occur when no bystanders are present. Therefore, providing resistance education for women students is a critical piece of a comprehensive campus strategy to reduce sexual violence.

    Unfortunately, there are no effective campus programs to reduce men's perpetration available, with one promising exception (men's programs combining bystander and social norms education, which require replication studies). Again, even once these are available and widely implemented, until all sexual violence perpetration is eliminated resistance education for women is still needed.

Q: Our university/college already offers traditional self-defense (e.g., RAD). Why would we need the EAAA program
  • Most campus police led self-defence programs focus entirely or mostly on stranger situations and do not prepare women for resisting acquaintances. They have not been proven effective at reducing the sexual violence women experience.

    Women experience both physical and emotional barriers to fighting back against men they know. The power of our program is that it supplements 2 hours of self-defence training with 10 hours of education to help women overcome the barriers to defending themselves, both verbally and physically. Most police/security taught self-defence courses focus on stranger situations, the least likely situations of sexual assault. Counseling a woman to use strategies like sticking keys or fingers in a man's eyes rarely helps her against perpetrators such as her girlfriend's boyfriend, since most women would not use these tactics against men they know. The self-defence component of our program was developed in collaboration with Wen-Do Women's Self-Defence. The organization has a 40-year track record in Canada. Their approach is trauma-informed and fully acknowledges the realities of violence against women and girls.

    Further, the EAAA program is not simply about self-defence. It includes emancipatory sexuality education focused on women's sexual desires, values and sexual rights including the right to initiate sex they do want with a consenting partner.

    Another empowerment self-defence program offered as an academic course (30-hrs; developed by Jocelyn Hollander at the University of Oregon) was found to be effective in reducing the sexual violence women experienced in a quasi-experimental study. Unfortunately, this latter type of self-defence class is not offered on many North American campuses.

Q: I am a University/college student, how do I get my institution to offer the EAAA/Flip the Script program
  • Contact the President of your University, the Board of Governors, the VP Academic/Provost, Dean of Students, the Director of Student Affairs, and/or your Sexual Assault Prevention or Title IX Offices. Provide them with this infographic. Tell them that you want the EAAA/Flip the Script program offered on your campus because it is the only evidence-based intervention with clinically proven efficacy in reducing the sexual violence women experience. Provide your Women's/Gender Equality Centre, and Health or Counselling Centre with the links to the research.

    Contact us at info@sarecentre.org if your university would like to receive more information directly from us. We can answer questions by email or arrange to make a presentation on the EAAA program and answer their questions in person or by video conference.

    Until broad scale social change happens and early intervention to stop perpetration is wide spread, the EAAA program offers campuses a way to decrease the harm experienced by young women now.

Q: I am a parent of University/college student (or a young woman about to enroll in University/college). How do I get the University/college my daughter is attending or planning to attend to offer the EAAA/Flip the Script program
  • Contact the President of your University, the Board of Governors, the VP Academic/Provost, Dean of Students, the Director of Student Affairs, and/or your Sexual Assault Prevention or Title IX Offices. Provide them with this infographic. Tell them that you want the EAAA/Flip the Script program offered on your campus because it is the only evidence-based intervention with clinically proven efficacy in reducing the sexual violence women experience. Provide your Women's/Gender Equality Centre, and Health or Counselling Centre with the links to the research.

    Contact us at info@sarecentre.org if anyone at the university would like to receive more information directly from us. We can answer questions by email or arrange to present on the EAAA program and answer their questions in person or by video conference.

    Until broad scale social change happens and early intervention to stop perpetration is wide spread, the EAAA program offers campuses a way to decrease the harm experienced by young women now.

Q: Why aren't you trying to change men's behaviors? Are you suggesting it is the responsibility of women to reduce sexual violence when most perpetrators are men?
  • Over the past several decades, many researchers have focused on finding ways to reduce men's perpetration behaviour, but only a few junior high school programs have achieved positive results (see the Centre for Disease Control's summary of this research). A particular type of enhanced men-only bystander and social norms programming has recently shown promise for short-term reductions in sexual violence perpetration (i.e., Alan Berkowitz' Men's Program or Laura Salazar's Real Consent). Researchers are continuing this work. However, until we live in a world where sexual violence perpetration has ended, we need a comprehensive and multi-faceted approach to prevention.

    Currently, the best evidence for changing men's behaviour is through general bystander education (e.g., Bringing in the Bystander) to create a less tolerant environment for perpetration and interrupt situations that show signs of becoming dangerous. Students of all genders benefit from this type of bystander education. We hope that over many years of sustained use of these programs, we will see community and societal changes. Unfortunately, this type of widespread social change will take time. And, the benefits of providing students with the tools to intervene when they see problematic situations developing or in progress has limits. In fact, most acquaintance sexual assaults happen in situations where there are no bystanders present. The EAAA/Flip the Script program empowers women and gives them the knowledge and tools they need to intervene on their own behalf. At the same time, the EAAA content makes it clear that women themselves are the only ones in any situation who know what they should or could do. EAAA holds perpetrators completely accountable for their actions and makes clear that there is no risk of sexual assault in any situation unless there is a man present who is willing to be sexually coercive. Facilitators are trained to interrupt woman-blaming that arises and educate about perpetrator responsibility. We know these strategies work because the EAAA program is proven to decrease young women's belief in rape myths including woman-blaming explanations for rape and these healthy attitudes are maintained for at least two years. Women who have taken EAAA also blame themselves less if they are subsequently sexually assaulted.

Q: What about male victims and/or GLBT victims of same-sex sexual violence? Why doesn't the EAAA program address their needs, too?
  • We care about and want to end sexual violence against all victims. Some victims of sexual violence are male&em;as are the vast majority of perpetrators. Transgender individuals also experience a high level of sexual violence, again committed primarily by men. Prevention research shows that if we try to make one program do everything for everyone (called "universal prevention"), it usually ends up doing very little for anyone. The EAAA program is specifically designed for young women in university/college who are the largest group of students on campus who are at elevated risk of being sexually assaulted and is based on research with that population. The examples and exercises used in the program are ones designed purposefully to be relevant to their lives. Higher relevance improves effectiveness. The program is designed to be inclusive of heterosexual, bisexual, lesbian, asexual, and trans-women while focusing on sexual assault by men. This is because lesbian, bisexual, asexual, and transwomen are also at highest risk of sexual assault by men.

    We are collaborating with researchers and educators to see whether adaptation of EAAA is possible for gender fluid, gender non-binary, and transmen and gay men. These adaptations will likely take several years. We are open to working with others who are interested in adapting the program for other communities/ audiences.

Q: Only a minority of women attend university/college; don't other women need/deserve this program
  • All young women could benefit from a similar program. With some minor changes, the EAAA program would likely be just as effective for other women in the same age group.

    Approximately 50% of the rapes experienced by women occur by the time they turn 18. Therefore, adapting the program for girls in high school is a priority for us. We piloted a version of the program with adapted activity scenarios between 2007 and 2010 but did not have funding to do further development. Dr. Sara Crann was hired in April 2018 to develop a deep adaptation of the EAAA/Flip the Script program for younger girls (14-16). This type of research takes time but this version of the program will likely be available for use within 3-5 years. Please contact us at the SARE Centre info@sarecentre.org for the status of this work.

    We are collaborating with researchers in the U.S. to create an adaptation of EAAA for marginalized girls before they go to university. We are interested in working in collaboration with other researchers who wish to lead adaptations of the program for women of other ages (graduate students) and are considering adaptations for women in the workforce (i.e., male-dominated workplaces) as well.

If you have more questions, contact us.